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The Bohemian rulers of the Luxembourg line, from Charles I, of Bohemia (the Emperor, Charles IV), until the extinction of the dynasty at the death of Sigismund (1437), were all German emperors.
Bohemia reached the height of its prosperity under the Emperor Charles IV who conquered Silesia and also occupied for a time the Mark of Brandenburg and the Upper Palatinate.
Although the two brothers, Cyril and Methodius, the Apostles of the Slavs, never entered Bohemia, yet Methodius was able to win over the Bohemian Duke Borziwoi to Christianity when the latter was at the court of Swatopluk, Grand Duke of Moravia.
In 878, Borziwoi was baptized by Methodius at Welehrad.
The mean temperature of the year is about 46.41 Fahrenheit.
Bohemia has much mineral wealth ; it is especially rich in silver, tin, lead, semiprecious stones, such as Bohemian garnets, hard coal, and lignite.
The Germans live chiefly near the boundaries of the country especially near the northern and northwestern boundaries. the land was occupied by a Suevic people, the Marcomanni, while the related tribe of the Quadi settled in Moravia and that part of Hungary adjoining Moravia.
In 1344, the Diocese of Leitomischl was founded, while Prague was made an archbishopric with the Diocese of Olmütz as suffragan.
The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries may be called the golden age of Christianity in Bohemia.
In 1348, Charles founded the University of Prague, the first university on German soil.
By his Golden Bull, Charles IV gave Bohemia the highest secular electoral dignity of the Holy Roman Empire.